Dr. Helene Loos
Dr. Helene Loos
Following her studies in food technology at the University of Hohenheim, Helene Loos obtained her doctorate in food chemistry at the Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU) in 2015. During her PhD, she investigated the aroma composition of breast milk and the behavioural responses of neonates to selected odorants from sweat and milk with Prof. Dr. Andrea Buettner and Dr. Benoist Schaal, at the Fraunhofer Institute for Process Engineering and Packaging IVV, Freising, and the Centre des Sciences du Goût et de l’Alimentation, Dijon.
After completing her doctoral thesis, she performed applied research at the Department of Sensory Analytics, Fraunhofer IVV, with a focus on sensory evaluation and multisensory perception, in cooperation with Prof. Dr. Jessica Freiherr, RWTH Aachen.
In 2017, she started her postdoctoral studies in the Department of Chemistry and Pharmacy at FAU, focusing on human psychophysiological responses to olfactory stimulation, and was supported by the programme “Promotion of Equal Opportunities for Women in Research and Teaching” (FFL).
Her current research activities in this area aim at establishing and improving the measurement and analysis of peripheral psychophysiological responses to olfactory stimulation. Further, in the framework of an Emerging Fields Initiative project having started in April 2019 (Human Body Odours: exploring chemical signatures), Helene Loos and colleagues set up a methodological platform at FAU to study the chemical and biological principles of body odour formation, and the role of body odours in human chemical communication. Helene Loos is one of the lead scientists contributing to the Campus of the Senses and the Sensory Sciences initiatives at FAU and Fraunhofer IVV and has strong interest and expertise in aroma analysis, olfaction and perceptual psychology. In 2021, she was awarded the Faculty of Sciences’ Women’s Prize at FAU for her junior research group “Olfactory perception and chemocommunication”. In September 2022, she was awarded the Werner Baltes Award of the Young Scientist by the Food Chemical Society of Food Chemistry (LChG) – Division in the German Chemical Society (GDCh) – for her overall scientific achievements in aroma and smell research.
Research Focus Areas and Current Projects
The group of Helene Loos explores mechanisms of perceptual and behavioural phenomena in the field of olfaction, applying a range of methods to identify and quantify odorants and their metabolites in biological samples, to characterize them in view of psychophysical parameters, and to assess their potential function in modulating behaviour. The two main areas of research are:
- Investigation of perceptual and physiological effects of odour-active volatiles.
- Inhaling an odorant elicits a range of biochemical and (psycho)physiological processes related to the chemical structure itself or to the cognitive evaluation of the odour percept. We aim to elucidate how physiology, e.g., sniffing behaviour, skin conductance, and heart rate, is modulated by intrinsic properties of the odorant but also by context parameters. The methodology is further used for the activity-guided discovery of activating and calming odours, and for the assessment of consumer responses to food and non-food products.
- We are further interested in perceptual effects related to the biochemical process of olfaction. In this context, we study structure-activity-relationships as well as biotransformation of odorants at the olfactory epithelium. Beyond that, we conduct intervention studies to understand the uptake, the biotransformation, and the excretion of aroma compounds in/from the human body.
- Another line of research relates to the role of olfaction in early development. Different developmental stages are characterized by different sensory, cognitive, and motor capacities, and different biochemical and physiological processes. We aim to characterize olfactory capacities and odour perception during development and to elucidate the role of olfaction in specific behaviours such as mother-infant-interaction, both in man and in animal models.
- Analytical characterization of odour-active and odourless volatiles.
- The elucidation of odour-active compounds is conducted for a broad range of research questions, relating to different disciplines such as food chemistry, food technology, or engineering. The current focus is on the elucidation of social odours. Chemocommunication has been demonstrated in a range of species, and it is well known that odours, including body odours, also play a crucial role in human behaviour. Further, ingested or inhaled odorants undergo biotransformation processes in the body and are eliminated via several routes, possibly influencing human body odour. We aim to characterize odorous and non-odorous volatiles emitted by the human body by applying analytical techniques such as gas chromatography-olfactometry/mass spectrometry. To this aim, we investigate the composition of body fluids and gases such as milk, urine, sweat, and breath, and assess the influence of individual factors such as age, life style, and health to explore the diagnostic value and communicative potential of body odours.
Helene Loos is principal investigator of the DFG project Chemical and ethological characterization of volatiles implicated in behavioural responses of songbird hatchlings to their parents’ scent , the Emerging Fields Initiative Project Human body odours: exploring chemical signatures ,and the project Olfactory communication in humans: exploring principles of the perception of human chemosignals funded by FAU. She also coordinates the network Human chemical communication, which is funded by DFG, and contributes to other projects of the Chair of Aroma and Smell Research.
We are constantly complementing and optimizing the methods we utilize to answer our research questions. Amongst others, we apply the following methods in conjunction with the appropriate statistical interpretation:
- one- and two-dimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/olfactometry with various odour sampling techniques
- descriptive and discriminative sensory evaluation, e.g. odour profile analysis, psychophysics
- demographic and psychological questionnaires
- analysis of facial movements (FACS)
- analysis of physiological recordings, e.g. skin conductance or electrocardiogram
Several of the current research projects are done in cooperation with researchers from the field. We are always happy to start new collaborative projects.
Wunder, A., Ludwig, J., Haertl, T., Arnhardt, S., Schwinn, L., Chellapandian, D. C., Weinmari, E., Mühle, C., Thürauf, N., Kornhuber, J., Rohleder, N., Loos, H. M., Freiherr, J. (2023) Can you smell my stress? Influence of stress chemosignals on empathy and emotion recognition in depressed individuals and healthy controls. Physiology & Behavior 270, 114309. doi: 10.1016/j.physbeh.2023.114309
Alves Soares, T., Owsienko, D., Haertl, T., Loos, H. M. (2023) Recovery rates of selected body odor substances in different textiles applying various work-up and storage conditions measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Analytica Chimica Acta 1252, 341067, doi: 10.1016/j.aca.2023.341067.
Lotter, S., Brand, L., Jamali, V., Schäfer, M., Loos, H. M., Unterweger, H., Greiner, S., Kirchner, J., Alexiou, C., Drummer, D., Fischer, G., Buettner, A., Schober, R. (2023) Experimental Research in Synthetic Molecular Communications – Part I. IEEE Nanotechnology Magazine, doi: 10.1109/MNANO.2023.3262100.
Lotter, S., Brand, L., Jamali, V., Schäfer, M., Loos, H. M., Unterweger, H., Greiner, S., Kirchner, J., Alexiou, C., Drummer, D., Fischer, G., Buettner, A., Schober, R. (2023) Experimental Research in Synthetic Molecular Communications – Part II. IEEE Nanotechnology Magazine, doi: 10.1109/MNANO.2023.3262377.
Jamali, V., Loos, H.M., Buettner, A., Schober, R., H. V. Poor (2023) Olfaction-inspired MCs: Molecule Mixture Shift Keying and Cross-Reactive Receptor Arrays. IEEE Transactions on Communications, doi: 10.1109/TCOMM.2023.3242379.
Wicke, W., Felsheim, R.C., Brand, L., Jamali, V., Loos, H.M., Buettner, A., Schober, R. (2023) Pulse Shaping for MC via Particle Size. IEEE Transactions on Molecular, Biological and Multi-Scale Communications, doi: 10.1109/TMBMC.2023.3254436.
Haertl, T., Owsienko, D., Schwinn, L., Hirsch, C., Eskofier, B.M., Lang, R., Wirtz, S., Loos H.M. (2023) Exploring the interrelationship between the skin microbiome and skin volatiles: A pilot study. Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution 11:1107463. doi: 10.3389/fevo.2023.1107463
Shanmugam, E., Loos, H.M. (2022) Where has all the aroma gone? Identification of aroma compounds in fresh and dried leaves of Melissa officinalis. Journal of Food Bioactives 20: 56–60. doi: 10.31665/JFB.2022.18328
Buchecker, F. Loos, H.M., Buettner, A. (2022) Smells like new car or rather like an old carriage? – Resolution of the decay behavior of odorants in vehicle cabins during usage. Indoor Air 32:e13112. https://doi.org/10.1111/ina.13112
Kornbausch, N., Debong, M.W., Buettner, A., Heydel, J.-M., Loos, H.M. (2022) Odorant metabolism in humans. Angewandte Chemie International Edition. https://doi.org/10.1002/anie.202202866
Buchecker, F., Baum, A., Loos, H.M., Buettner, A. (2022) Follow your nose – Traveling the world of odorants in new cars. Indoor Air 32:e13014. doi:10.1111/ina.13014
Buchecker, F., Loos, H.M., Buettner, A. (2022) Odor characterization of a cavity preservation using emission test chambers by different sensory evaluation methods and sampling concepts for instrumental analysis. Talanta Open 5: 100098. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.talo.2022.100098
Buchecker, F., Loos, H.M., Buettner, A. (2022) Investigations on the impact of hardening on the odour of an aqueous cavity preservation for automotive applications using sensory and instrumental analysis. Talanta Open 5: 100095. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.talo.2022.100095
Debong, M. W., N’Diaye, K., Owsienko, D., Schöberl, D., Ammar, T., Lang, R., Buettner, A., Hofmann, T., Loos, H. M. (2021) Dietary linalool is transferred into the milk of nursing mothers. Molecular Nutrition and Food Research, 2100507. https://doi.org/10.1002/mnfr.202100507
N´Diaye, K., Debong, M., Behr, J., Dirndorfer, S., Duggan, T., Beusch, A., Schlagbauer, V., Dawid, C., Loos, H. M., Buettner, A., Lang, R., Hofmann, T. (2021) Dietary piperine is transferred into the milk of nursing mothers. Molecular Nutrition and Food Research, 2100508. https://doi.org/10.1002/mnfr.202100508
Janzen, D., Slavik, B., Zehe, M., Sotriffer, C., Loos, H.M., Buettner, A., Villmann, C. (2021) Sesquiterpenes and sesquiterpenoids harbor modulatory allosteric potential and affect inhibitory GABAA receptor function in vitro. Journal of Neurochemistry. doi: 10.1111/jnc.15469
Slavik, B., Roehrer, S., Loos, H.M., Minceva, M., Buettner, A. (2021) Isolation of sesquiterpenoids from Matricaria chamomilla by means of solvent assisted flavor evaporation and centrifugal partition chromatography. Journal of Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry. doi: 10.1007/s00216-021-03400-w.
Loos, H.M., Schreiner, L., Karacan, B. (2020) A systematic review of physiological responses to odours with a focus on current methods used in event-related study designs. International Journal of Psychophysiology 158, 143-157. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpsycho.2020.08.014.
Qin, W., Huber, K., Popp, M., Bauer, P., Buettner, A., Sharapa, C., Scheffler, L., Loos, H.M. (2020) Quantification of Allyl Methyl Sulfide, Allyl Methyl Sulfoxide, and Allyl Methyl Sulfone in Human Milk and Urine after Ingestion of Cooked and Roasted Garlic. Frontiers in Nutrition 7: 565496. doi: 10.3389/fnut.2020.565496.
Schreiner, L., Karacan, B., Blankenagel, S., Packhaeuser, K., Freiherr, J., Loos, H.M. (2020) Out of the woods: Psychophysiological investigations on wood odors to estimate their suitability as ambient scents. Wood Science and Technology, 54(5), 1385-1400. doi: 10.1007/s00226-020-01216-y
Schaal B., Saxton T.K., Loos H., Soussignan R., Durand K. (2020) Olfaction scaffolds the developing human from neonate to adolescent and beyond.
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B 375: 20190261. doi: 10.1098/rstb.2019.0261
Loos, H., Schaal, B., Reger, D. (2019). The odour of human milk: Its chemical variability and detection by newborns. Physiology & behavior, 199, 88-99. doi: 10.1016/j.physbeh.2018.11.008
Zareian, M., Böhner, N., Loos, H. M., Silcock, P., Bremer, P., Beauchamp, J. (2018). Evaluation of volatile organic compound release in modified atmosphere-packaged minced raw pork in relation to shelf-life. Food packaging and shelf life 18, 51-61. doi: 10.1016/j.fpsl.2018.08.001
Mahmoud, M., Tybussek,T., Loos, H. M., Wagenstaller, M., Buettner, A. (2018). Odorants in fish feeds: a potential source of malodors in aquaculture. Frontiers in Chemistry, 6 (241). doi: 10.3389/fchem.2018.00241
Schreiner, L., Loos, H. M., Buettner, A. (2017). Identification of odorants in wood of Calocedrus decurrens (Torr.) Florin by aroma extract dilution analysis and two-dimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/olfactometry. Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry. doi: 10.1007/s00216-017-0314-x
Loos, H.M., Doucet, S., Védrines, F., Sharapa, C., Soussignan, R., Durand, K., Sagot, P., Buettner, A., Schaal, B. (2017). Responses of human neonates to highly diluted odorants from sweat. Journal of Chemical Ecology. doi: 10.1007/s10886-016-0804-x
Loos, H. M., Doucet, S., Soussignan, R., Hartmann, C., Durand, K., Dittrich, R., Sagot, P., Buettner, A., Schaal, B. (2014). Responsiveness of human neonates to the odor of 5α-androst-16-en-3-one: a behavioral paradox? Chemical Senses, 39 (8), 693-703. doi: 10.1093/chemse/bju041
Fromm, M., Loos, H. M., Bayha, S., Carle, R., Kammerer, D. R. (2013). Recovery and characterization of coloured phenolic preparations from apple seeds. Food Chemistry, 136 (3-4), 1277-1287. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2012.09.042
Slavik, B., Nehr, J., Loos, H. M., Buettner, A. (2021) Identification and semi-quantification of sesquiterpenes and sesquiterpenoids from Chamomile, Hop, Lavender, Basil and Lemon balm. In: E. Guichard and J.L. Le Quéré (Eds), Proceedings of the 16th Weurman Flavour Research Symposium (2021), DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.5752298.
Buchecker, F., Loos, H.M., Buettner, A. (2021) Volatile compounds in the vehicle-interior: Odorants of an aqueous cavity preservation and beyond. In: E. Guichard and J.L. Le Quéré (Eds), Proceedings of the 16th Weurman Flavour Research Symposium. doi: 10.5281/zenodo.5345941.
Debong, M., Lang, R., N’Diaye, K., Buettner, A., Hofmann, T., Loos, H.M. (2021) Tracing odour- and taste-active compounds in human milk. In: E. Guichard and J.L. Le Quéré (Eds), Proceedings of the 16th Weurman Flavour Research Symposium. doi: 10.5281/zenodo.5346462.
Join the group
We are always looking for talented individuals to join our team.
Postdocs and PhD students:
We are happy to support your ideas in fellowship applications for PhD and Postdoc projects.
Do not hesitate to reach out to inquire about participation as student assistant (HiWi) as well as possibilities for final theses and internships.
Please get in touch with Helene Loos at email@example.com